Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Do speakers of Tzeltal never get lost in the woods?

I remember reading about a language that features the cardinal directions in its grammar. The author did not include a description of the method this language’s speakers use to determine whether one is facing east, west, north, or south with such dependable accuracy that they can take it for granted, which is something you have to do if you’re going to be incorporating that information into everyday speech. I remember wondering if speakers were rarely indoors, thus hip to directional cues from the sky, the sun during the day, the stars at night. But I didn’t take it any farther than an idle puzzling.

In a discussion of hidden senses in his book Deep James Nestor says this:

The Guugu Yimithirr, an Australian Aboriginal tribe, had a remarkable sense of direction that they incorporated into their language. Instead of using words meaning ‘right,’ ‘left,’ ‘front,’ and ‘back,’ Guugu Yimithirr used the cardinal directions of north, south, east, and west. If a Guugu Yimithirr tribesman wanted you to make room for him on a bed, he’d ask you to move a few feet west. Guugu Yimithirr didn’t bend backward, they bent northward, or southward, or eastward.

The only way Guugu Yimithirr could communicate was by knowing their exact coordinates at all times … But it was second nature to them, as well as for a host of cultures throughout Indonesia, Mexico, Polynesia, and elsewhere, whose languages were also based on cardinal directions.

In the 1990s, researchers from the … Max Planck Institute … placed a speaker of Tzeltal — a Mayan directional language spoken by about 370,000 people in southern Mexico — in a dark house and spun him around blindfolded. … [A]sked … to point north, south, east, and then west [the Tzeltal speaker] did this successfully, and without hesitation, twenty times in a row.

You’ve heard that birds and sharks use the earth’s magnetic field to navigate, right? Well, maybe that’s how east and south got into grammar. Maybe we can take advantage of magnets in our heads.

“Human magnetoreception [is] distinct from other senses, like vision and smell [in that magnetoreception] is an unconscious, latent sense,” says Nestor. “We don’t know it exists unless we put ourselves in a situation in which we have to use it.”

Like when we’re lost in the woods? Or at sea?

Were the Polynesians relying on their magnetoreceptive sense when they colonized islands thousands of miles apart in the Pacific?

source: Deep: freediving, renegade science, and what the ocean tells us about ourselves by James Nestor
2014. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York

Sunday, July 19, 2015

word of the day: scanlation

context:
Many of the readers coming to this book [Massive: gay erotic manga and the men who make it] will have found the first crumbs leading to our pie years ago at websites that host scanlations and other forms of pirated manga. The road we as editors took to get here was itself paved in part by the purveyors of these illicit goods — not because we were downloading illegal scanlations, but because the presence of those sites was proof that thousands of manga fans were desperate for legitimation. Across the board(s), we’d see the same rationalizations come up repeatedly in conversations about the unsanctioned translations.

“It doesn’t hurt anyone because it’s out of print.”
“It’s never going to be published in English.”

The problem isn’t just when this isn’t true. It’s the fact that not telling someone you like their stuff enough to sepnd hours translating and publicizing the work is just weird. It’s a little bit stalker-like.

That’s Anne Ishii, one of the editors (and the translator) of the gay manga collection.

I think you get the definition just fine from the context. It’s a new word, clearly. The most thorough version of its meaning is this one at Wikipedia:

definition: the scanning, translation, and editing of comics from a language into another language. Scanlation is done as an amateur work and is nearly always done without express permission from the copyright holder. The word “scanlation" is a portmanteau of the words scan and translation. The term is mainly used for Japanese comics (manga), although it also exists for other national traditions on a lesser scale. Scanlations may be viewed at websites or as sets of image files downloaded via the Internet.

source: Massive: gay erotic manga and the men who make it edited by Anne Ishii, Chip Kidd, and Graham Kolbeins
2014. Fantagraphics Books, Seattle WA

Tuesday, July 14, 2015

“Attitudes” by Jean Le Louet

Attitudes

At that time I saw three men. The first was covered with blood, and because they had beaten him, the blood kept pouring out of him. The second was kneeling, and because they had tied his arms, he remained on his knees. The third was sitting at his enemy’s table, and because the enemy treated him with respect, he remained at that table.

Then I called the first by name and cried out to him, “Don’t die.” But the blood continued to flow and through the blood he replied, “I’ll make it, because I love.”

Then I named the second man and cried out to him, “Cast off your bonds.” He replied, “I am weak, and the man who tied me up is very strong.”

And I named the third man and said to him, “Stand up, won’t you!” And he replied, “I shall remain here, because my enemy is cunning and I wish to outwit him.”

Then I summoned the angel of unity and said to him, “Unite these people or destroy them.” At that the angel of unity took the first man’s blood and smeared it on the other two.

And he who had been kneeling and he who was sitting were strengthened.

The bleeding man leaned on them for support. And the blood flowed less freely from his wounds. And the blood removed the veil from their eyes.

I came across Jean Le Louet’s poem in Czeslaw Milosz’s Year of the Hunter. Czeslaw Milosz includes some context:

[I]t is a translation into French of my translation into Polish; the French original was lost. Its author, Jean Le Louet, a French poet of the second wave of Surrealism was in Warsaw in August 1939, possibly for romantic reasons (he was gay). … The outbreak of war caught him in Warsaw; the Germans sent him to Lake Constance as a French citizen, and he was interned along with another French citizen, Stanislaw Dygat. That is when he wrote the poem, immediately after the fall of France in 1940, I believe. Dygat brought it to Warsaw and gave it to me; I translated it and put it in my anthology The Invincible Song (1942).



Louet [was] thin, delicate, almost feminine, with a sickly throat, speaking in a whisper. … I heard that after the war he led the life of a clochard [vagrant]. No one knows when he died. … Completely forgotten as a poet, with that one title to his fame — a poem in Polish translation. An unusual poem, having nothing to do with Surrealism … but referring to biblical tradition (as if it were written by a Polish romantic poet); a prophetic poem, because how in 1940 could he have foreseen collaboration?

I searched the web for more on Jean Le Louet and found description of a chapbook from 1937, Ceci Passe: Quatrième Cahier de Habitude de la Poésie. So it seems more than just a single poem of Jean Le Louet has survived. I found no mention of his publishing after the war. I’m sure there are French sources to search, but that’s beyond me.

I present the poem here because I like it. The poem traveled no easy path to survival. Yet, despite Milosz’s claim, it is not the only “title to his fame.” I am curious, if Milosz’s translation is the closest we can get to Louet’s French original, is the one here, the version in English, translated from Milosz’s French version of his own Polish version or did the translator of A Year of the Hunter, Madeline Levine, work with Milosz’s Polish?

source: A Year of the Hunter by Czeslaw Milosz, translated by Madeline G. Levine. 1994. Farr, Straus and Giroux.

update: After asking the question at the end of the post, I looked up the translator, Madeline G. Levine. There is a professor of Slavic Literatures, Emerita at the University of North Carolina named Madeline G. Levine. Her email is listed on the UNC site. So I sent Ms Levine an email, apologizing for bothering her, but wondering if she could recall whether Jean Le Louet’s “Attitudes” made one stop or two on its way to English. Ms Levine wrote back the same day saying she remembers reviewing the page proofs of Year of the Hunter with Milosz himself. She said she translated the poem from the Polish. The French original (in Stanislaw Dygat’s transcription) must have been lost. Why else would the poem require retranslation from Polish back into French?

Monday, July 13, 2015

word of the day: auscultate

context:
Primo Levi survived the German extermination camp, Auschwitz. Reflecting on Germany in 1960, fifteen years after its defeat in World War II, Levi thinks back to the country’s embrace of Nazism. “[T]he National Socialist message found an echo precisely in the Germans’ traditional virtues, in their sense of discipline and national cohesion, their unquenched thirst for primacy, their propensity for slavish obedience.”

What has changed since the end of the war?
It is difficult to auscultate the hearbeat of a people. Anyone who travels in Germany today finds the outward appearances that I found everywhere. A growing affluence, peaceful people, large and small intrigues, a moderate subversive atmosphere; on the stands, newspapers like ours, conversations like ours on trains and in trams; a few scandals that end like all scandals. And yet in the air you sense something that you do not sense elsewhere. Anyone who takes them to task for the dreadful events of recent history rarely finds repentance, or even critical consciousness: much more often he encounters an ambiguous response, in which are intertwined a feeling of guilt, a desire for vindication, and a deliberate and impudent ignorance.

definition: to listen (especially with a stethoscope)

source: The Mirror Maker: stories and essays by Primo Levi
translated from the Italian by Raymond Rosenthal
1989. Random House, New York

Sunday, July 12, 2015

word of the day: vernissage

context:
He is working three or four nights a week for the caterer, plus the odd afternoons, waiting tables, tending bar, assembling hors d’oeuvres; at bar mitzvahs, cocktails, vernissages, dinner parties, bank openings. … He prefers to work in the kitchen or pantry, where he is safe from discovery and can make the rent money in peace. Often he has looked out from the equivalent of the wings and spotted a friend or even a table of friends among the guests. Everything he does … is a distortion of his old expectations of being rich and glamorous. He is present at the experience but on the wrong side of the canapes.

definition (from the Oxford English Dictionary): A day before the exhibition of paintings on which exhibitors may retouch and varnish their pictures already hung. Now usu. denoting a private view of paintings before public exhibition.

source: The Family of Max Desire a novel by Robert Ferro
1983. E. P. Dutton, New York

Saturday, July 11, 2015

word of the day: gallooning

context:
The house faced the sea from a low bluff of dunes beside a red-brick lighthouse with a fourteen-mile, two-second light. Down the coast green lawns met the beach with a thin gray strip of boardwalk in between, like gallooning. All the way down, where on the clearest days the horizon came ashore, the rocks of an inlet led into Barnegat Bay.

definition (The Oxford English Dictionary doesn’t offer this particular form “gallooning;” however a definition appears under “galloon”): A kind of narrow, close-woven ribbon or braid, of gold, silver, or silk thread, used for trimming articles of apparel; a trimming of this material.

source: The Family of Max Desire a novel by Robert Ferro
1983. E. P. Dutton, New York

Friday, July 10, 2015

word of the day: machicolation

context:
On either side of the gate rose square towers
faced with white marble, one pierced by
a narrow door, too low to enter without stooping.
Beyond it, ramps and stairs twisted upwards
through the mass of stone. At the halfway point
the lights failed: it was completely dark.
We lit improvised tapers, emerging at length
on the broad summit of the tower.



The students posed for a group portrait against
a backdrop of machicolations and the sea,
but the elevation made me giddy and my knees weak,
so I descended alone, stumbling in the dark.

lines from John Ash’s “The Tour”

definition (according to the Oxford English Dictionary): Archit. An opening between the corbels which support a projecting defensive parapet, or in the floor of a gallery or the roof of a portal, through which combustibles, molten lead, stones, etc., could be dropped upon assailants below. Also: a projecting structure having a range of such openings.

source: The Anatolikon by John Ash
2000. Talisman House Publishers, Jersey City, NJ

Thursday, July 09, 2015

word of the day: pervicacious

context:
[Dr William] Masters underlined a quote he found in the library from Dr. Robert L. Dickinson, former president of the American Gynecological Society, who wrote in JAMA [The Journal of the American Medical Association] during the mid-1920s: “In view of the pervicacious gonadal urge in human beings, it is not a little curious that science develops its sole timidity about the pivotal point of the physiology of sex.”

definition (from the Oxford English Dictionary): Thoroughly obstinate or stubborn; headstrong, wilful, refractory.

The prudish aversion to serious research into human sexual response is nearly as pervicacious as human sexual response is pervy.

source: Masters of Sex: the life and times of William Masters and Virginia Johnson, the couple who taught America how to love by Thomas Maier

Wednesday, July 08, 2015

word of the day: titrate

context:
Dr. N. was a decent, sensitive man who had known Michael since his initial psychosis nearly fourteen years earlier, and he too was disturbed by the new, drug-related problems he was encountering with many of his patients on Largactil. He was trying to titrate the drug, to find a dosage which would be just enough but not too much or too little.

… I wondered whether systems in the brain concerned with the perception (or projection) of meaning … systems underlying a sense of wonder … systems for appreciation of the beauty of art and science, had lost their balance in schizophrenia, producing a mental world overcharged with intense emotion and distortions of reality. … [A]ny attempt to titrate them, damp them down, could tip the person from a pathologically heightened state to one of great dullness, a sort of mental death.

definition: continuously measure and adjust the balance of (a physiological function or drug dosage).

Oliver Sacks does a fine job of defining titrate upon introducing it. Sacks doesn’t use much jargon, but when he does he readily helps out his lay readers with the likely unfamiliar term.

source: On the Move: a life by Oliver Sacks
2015. Borzoi / Alfred A. Knopf, New York

***

I marked a couple places in the autobiography where Oliver Sacks mentions books that look worth hunting up:

Mind of a Mnemonist by A. R. Luria
“I read the first thirty pages thinking it was a novel. But then I realized that it was in fact a case history — the deepest and most detailed case history I had ever read, a case history with the dramatic power, the feeling and the structure of a novel.”

Pride and a Daily Marathon by Jonathan Cole
“[A] virus … deprived [Ian Waterman] of all proprioception below his head. [Proprioception is the sense we have of inhabiting a body.] … When [Ian] sits, he must consciously hold himself erect so he does not fall forward … He may appear perfectly normal, but if the lights suddenly go out … he will fall helplessly to the ground [as Ian has compensated for his lack of proprioception by continually checking himself visually]. Over the years Jonathan [Cole] and Ian have formed a deep relationship — as doctor and patient, investigator and subject, and, increasingly, as colleagues and friends (they have been working together for thirty years now). In the course of this decades-long collaboration, Jonathan has written dozens of scientific articles and a remarkable book, Pride and a Daily Marathon, about Ian.”

Tuesday, June 30, 2015

word of the day: ostranenie

context:
Speaking with the poet Graham Foust, interviewer Bryce Thornburg of Berkeley Poetry Review says:
I was really interested in the strategies of estrangement that you use — and I don’t mean that in the ostranenie sense — but I mean that with in a sort of doubling of language via in repetition but with a difference — maybe with a change in word class, or words within words, or something that might sound familiar from a previous part of a poem, or even things that sound familiar from, you know, pop lyrics or song titles or things like that.

Ostranenie is a piece of literary theory jargon. It does not appear in the Oxford English Dictionary, my favorite definition source since the Berkeley Public Library decided to subscribe.

Dictionary.com gives a one-word definition: defamiliarization

More helpfully, dictionary.com will pronounce the word for you.

Oxford Reference is more expansive:
[T]he concept refers to the techniques writers use to transform ordinary language into poetic language, which for the Russian Formalists is language which induces a heightened state of perception. Habit, according to the Russian Formalists, is the enemy of art, therefore to produce art the writer has to force the reader outside of the usual patterns of perception by making the familiar appear strange or different. … [T]he deadened senses of the reader [are] awakened by clever writing … [T]his process suffers from the logic of diminishing returns—what was shocking yesterday is all too familiar today … (this, as many commentators have observed, is the problem contemporary non-representational art also faces).

The term seems to have been coined by the Russian literary theorist Victor Shklovsky.

The interviewer did a decent job defining “ostranenie,” while claiming the poet was doing something other than doing that very thing, that is, defamiliarizing “things that sound familiar.”

source: Berkeley Poetry Review issue 42. 2012.

Wednesday, June 17, 2015

word of the day: nainsook

context:
… the fishermen dock
on navy blue
nainsook patchwork quilts
ready for love.

— Flavio de Araujo
translated from Brazilian Portuguese by Rachel Morgenstern-Clarren

definition: A fine soft cotton fabric, a kind of muslin or jaconet, originally made in South Asia. Also: a garment made of this.

from the Oxford English Dictionary.

The word “nainsook” appears in the Portuguese as “nanzuque.”

Tuesday, June 16, 2015

word of the day: ventifact

context:
… The bus veered south into
A land of lunar ventifacts and umbrella pines
… Rainstorms still pursued us.
Horizons turned to a calamitous black,
And the streets of obscure towns steamed
In the sun …

— John Ash

definiton: A faceted stone shaped or altered by wind-blown sand.

from the Oxford English Dictionary, which quotes J. W. Evans, “for any wind-shaped stone, we might speak of a ‘ventifact’, on the analogy of artifact.”

One might note the oddity of a wind-shaped stone being called "lunar" what with there being no wind on the moon.

source: “Stations,” a poem in In the Wake of the Day by John Ash

Sunday, May 31, 2015

pile of reading

It’s Not Over: getting beyond tolerance, defeating homophobia, and winning true equality by Michelangelo Signorile
I like Signorile. I liked his Queer in America. It’s Not Over is an attempt to take some of the air out of the LGBT Victory! balloon. Should the US Supreme Court recognize that gay people have as much right to families as non-gay people we won’t have won everything, Signorile hastens to remind us. We will have won something of great significance, but there will still be a lot of people who don’t like us, and we will still have to deal with them on a day to day basis in our schools, in our workplaces, in politics, and so on. Should this surprise anyone?

Reader Please Supply Meaning poems by Jim Murdoch
Many of the poems in Jim’s book are so simpatico with poems I’ve written (see: Fact) that I find myself editing Jim's poems in my head as though I had written them. Editing other people’s poems in my head (or in front of the poet herself) is not unusual for me, I have to say. But in this case I quickly found myself assimilating Jim’s project into my own, the arguments in his poems spilling over into my poems in ways I look forward to exploring.

Roots and Branches: contemporary essays by West Coast writers edited by Howard Junker
The essays in this anthology all originally appeared in Howard Junker’s literary magazine, Zyzzyva. I subscribed for a while and got the book as part of my subscription. Back in 1991 I wasn’t much into essays. I am rather more into essays these days.

Seriously Funny: poems about love, death, religion, art, politics, sex, and everything else edited by Barbara Hamby and David Kirby
As with any anthology Seriously Funny is a mixed bag. The tastes of the editors are rather more apparent than usual. The tone doesn’t always hit me right. But it makes decent reading.

The Portable Dante edited by Mark Musa
Edited & translated, that is. There are many translations to choose from if one wants to tackle Dante in English. This one seemed to read well when I picked it up in the bookstore, enough style to be poetry without being more trouble than pleasure. A poet friend has been working on his own translation, off and on over the years. And writing reactions to it as he works. Since I had this on my shelf I figured I would profit better from the fragments my friend shows me if I read somebody’s version of the whole thing. Besides, it’s one of those works everybody refers to and some point.

The Best American Comics 2014 edited by Scott McCloud
I’m familiar with most of the creators collected here and some of the works themselves, so maybe I’m on top of what’s best already? Worth reading.

The Family of Max Desir by Robert Ferro
Quite enjoying Ferro’s prose. The book is rather like one of those biographies that begin with the subject’s grandparents and fills tens of pages before it gets to the subject’s birth. Not a novel with a plot so much as a family saga whipped through in a couple hundred pages.

Masters of Sex: the life and times of Williams Masters and Virginia Johnson, the couple who taught America how to love by Thomas Maier
Subtitles sure are long these days. Kent and I have been watching Showtime’s Masters of Sex, the fictionalized TV series of the same name. It’s intrigued me enough to wonder about the real thing.

Portfolios of the Poor: how the world’s poor live on $2 a day by Daryl Collins, Jonathan Morduch, Stuart Rutherford, and Orland Ruthven
There are fascinating human stories hiding behind dry prose.

In the Wake of the Day poems by John Ash
John Ash was a guest lecturer at UC Berkeley and he allowed me into his poetry workshop. I haven’t read a book by him in years and it’s time I caught up.

American Zen: a gathering of poets edited by Ray McNiece and Larry Smith
I do like the idea of Zen poetry, what sense I can make of that idea anyway. A plainness. A humility. Whether the particular poem is one I love is another thing.

Two Lines: world writing in translation; Passageways edited by Camille T. Dungy and Daniel Hahn
Every poem and story features is preceded by comments from the translator. Sometimes the preliminary matter exceeds the word count of the featured work by quite a bit. Still, I like hearing the translator’s thoughts, the whys, the bios.

Enizagam 2011
I’m trying to read more random literary magazines.

Berkeley Poetry Review 42
As a former member of the team, I try to keep up on the game.

Selected Poems by W. H. Auden
At a Poetry Circle meeting one of the regulars read from W. H. Auden. I know Auden has a lot of fans and I bought and started this book many years ago, but the first few pages didn’t make me go, Wow, so the book fell out of the pile. Now it’s back!

The New York Review of Books May 7, 2015
Found this left out on the curb up the street. It’s rather New Yorker-like in the quality of writing such that whatever is published is fairly interesting.

Super 8 a chapbook by Richard Lopez
Richard visited this weekend and left me a chapbook about Super 8 porn. “foreground / a tube of Vaseline”

Terms of Service: social media and the price of constant connection by Jacob Silverman
Social media is fucking us over? Of course it is.

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

notes toward an autobiography by others

The streets of Ho Chi Minh City make for rather desperate exercise for even the most enthusiastic of pedestrians. Footpaths can vary wildly, and occasionally disappear into deep drains. When they are not serving as motorcycle parking lots they make excellent extensions of shop display space, and so the Saigon flaneur must spend much time walking in the road itself, right in the midst of the traffic, praying wildly that a bus or truck doesn’t come speeding up behind you.

When one is making plans to visit Saigon what seems like the most daunting part of walking the city is the crossing of streets. Typically one does not wait for a crosswalk signal or a traffic light or STOP sign, or even a break in the traffic flow, one just steels oneself and steps off the sidewalk. The traffic is mostly motorbikes and the drivers take note of you and swirl around you. I watched videos of this before we left for Vietnam and it looked crazy. But once we were doing it it made a kind of sense. This is not to say it’s a stress-free adventure, especially at night when the oncoming traffic consists of glowing cyclopean eyes, but you kind of know what you’re in for.

What stressed me out more than crossing streets was discovering that the distinction between street and footpath is, well, let’s just say it’s contingent. If the street beside which you are walking is one way and a motorbike pulls out of a driveway and the driver wishes to travel against the traffic flow he doesn’t go all the way around the block. He uses the sidewalk. Thus the footpath is an optional bike lane. And parking space. And dining area for sidewalk restaurants. My tummy felt queasy most the time I was in SE Asia and I did not have the resilience necessary to be constantly on the alert. When our itinerary said it was time to leave Saigon — I was ready.

quote source: Destination Saigon: adventures in Vietnam by Walter Mason